Educational Research Methods Annotated Bibliography 1-3

Article 1:

Buckles, S., Schug, M. C., & Watts, M. (2001). A national survey of state assessment practices in the social studies. Social Studies92(4), 141. Retrieved from site=ehost-live

This article is a quantitative study on social studies assessment practices of different states in America. The researchers interviewed a representative from each state and the District of Columbia. The purpose of the interviews was to identify which states are using assessments in social studies and to describe the nature of the assessments, and how the answers were recorded. They found that the majority of states use some kind of annual testing, and they use a variety of assessment methods.


This study is important to me as an educator because secondary social studies right are being anchored down by state standardized testing, most of it multiple choice. It is important to see what the country is doing in terms of assessment in social studies so that we can see what the other options in assessment like short answer, essay, and open-ended extended responses. These types of assessments involve real-life skills like critical thinking and engage more curriculums than just social studies.


Article 2: 

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (1997). Studies of education reform: Assessment of student performance. By N. Khattri, M. B.  Kane, A. L. Reeve, & R. J. Adamson. Retrieved from

This article describes a qualitative study on student assessment. The researchers observed 16 schools that were developing or implementing performance assessments in their schools. They made individual case studies for each school, then cross-case analyzed the case studies with each other to see what the overall results were. They found that students were overall more engaged and put more effort into their projects.


This would apply to me as an educator because assessments in social studies are slowly moving to more performance based and less multiple choice. This article offers many different types of examples of performance assessments that could be implemented into a secondary social studies classroom. It also shows the importance of performance assessments in schools and can help move state officials to adopting more of them.


Article 3:

O’brien, J. (1997). Statewide social studies performance assessment: Threat or treat?. The Social Studies, 88(2), 53-59. DOI: 10.1080/00377999709603747

This article is about a mixed study on state-wide performance based assessment. The state of Kansas was making reforms in their curriculum and testing, and decided to test how state-wide performance based assessment would work in social studies. They tested this in every 5th, 8th, and 11th grade social studies classes. They found that both teachers and students like the performance based assessments, and but to make it work state-wide, they need provide teachers with better overall guidance and support for the assessment.


This study would apply to secondary social studies because the current standardized testing in Virginia is starting to shift to performance based assessment. In Newport News Virginia, the secondary social studies curriculum has shifted country wide to include performance based assessments instead of multiple-choice testing. Virginia is starting to make this move, and since I will be teaching in the state, it would be good to look into other versions of state-wide performance based assessment in social studies.

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